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Packard Gray Wolf 1904 Vanderbilt Cup picture

Vanderbilt Cup – Race Profile

The Vanderbilt Cup, America’s First International Series

By Art Evans

The first Vanderbilt Cup Race, held in 1904, amounted to pandemonium according to press reports. Newspaper and poster promotion drew a huge crowd. Estimated to be as numerous as 50,000 spectators were lined dangerously close to the entire course, some actually straying onto it. There were so many people that they became part of the spectacle.

The Vanderbilt Cup was the first contest of any real international stature held in the United States. Until then, major events took place in Europe and were dominated by cars made in Europe and driven mostly by Europeans. Because racing improves the breed, as they say, European cars were, with some exceptions, superior to those made in the United States.

William K. Vanderbilt Jr. picture
William K. Vanderbilt Jr. (1878-1944).

William K. Vanderbilt Jr., or Willie K as his friends called him, created the Vanderbilt Cup series. Willie K. was the great-grandson of Cornelius Vanderbilt, the railroad and shipping magnate. Vanderbilt Jr., a railroad executive and accomplished yachtsman, had spent some years participating in the fledgling sport of automobile racing. In Europe he was third in the 1902 Circuit des Ardennes in Belgium, was in the Gordon Bennett series and ran in city-to-city races including the infamous 1903 Paris-Madrid-Paris. He was impressed with the quality of European-made cars as well as European roads in comparison with those in the U.S. In order to encourage the improvement of U.S. cars and roads, he got the idea of promoting a series in America somewhat similar to the Gordon Bennett.

Initially, Vanderbilt’s proposal of an open road race on Long Island met with considerable resistance and controversy. There were a number of lawsuits and public hearings. Farmers objected because they used the roads to transport produce to market. Others, looking at experiences in Europe, thought it would be too dangerous. Nevertheless Vanderbilt, who had posted a large amount of prize money, eventually prevailed.

The first race of the series took place over 30.24 miles of winding dirt roads in the center of Long Island. Like the Gordon Bennett, it was a competition among countries; entry was limited to five from each country. Cars had to be manufactured entirely within the country represented. A car had to weigh between 881 and 2,204 pounds. Everyone had to have a riding mechanic as well as the driver and each had to weigh at least 132 pounds.

The course was roughly triangular and the race ran clockwise for ten laps. The Start-Finish line was at Westbury. The cars had to stop at Hicksville and Hempstead where they were inspected and then led by officials on bicycles through the towns and over railroad tracks. The race consisted of a total of 284.4 miles. Cars were sent off at two-minute intervals. Eight members of the Chronograph Club were on hand as timekeepers. Vanderbilt Jr. waved the first car off at 6 a.m. on Saturday, October 8, 1904.

The 1904 Vanderbilt Cup was held on public roads in the Nassau County area of Long Island. As you can see, Mineola and Hempstead were in the center of the course with Hicksville at the right end. Compare this with the modern map.
The 1904 Vanderbilt Cup was held on public roads in the Nassau County area of Long Island. As you can see, Mineola and Hempstead were in the center of the course with Hicksville at the right end. Compare this with the modern map.
Current-day map of Long Island
You can see where the course was looking at this modern map of the North Shore part of Long Island. Find Hicksville, Mineola and Hempstead.

Eighteen entries had been accepted, but only seventeen made the start. They represented six cars made in France, five in Germany, two in Italy and five in the U.S. The French cars were three Panhards, a Renault, a De Dietrich and a Clement-Bayard, driven by Albert Clement Jr. himself. George Heath (born in the U.S, but a British citizen who lived in Paris) drove one of the Panhards. (It’s unclear why France was allowed six entries). The German cars were all Mercedes, all owned by Americans. Both Italian cars were Fiats. The five American entries were, with one exception, modified touring cars in contrast to the purpose-built European racers. The exception was the famous Packard Gray Wolf, an out-and-out racer. Other Americans included a Pope-Toledo, a Simplex, a White Steamer and a Royal, driven by Joe Tracy, the most famous American driver of the day.

American 75 bhp Simplex Vanderbilt Cup
The American 75 bhp Simplex was owned and driven by Frank Crocker, son of Tammany Hall boss Richard Crocker. It was overweight at the weigh-in, so Crocker drilled many holes in the chassis.
American Pope-Toledo Vanderbilt Cup
The American Pope-Toledo, driven by Herb Lytle, was a 24 bhp modified touring car.

Vanderbilt Cup – Race Profile Continued

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Show Comments (11)

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  1. Great reading and really neat period photos. Love the drilled chassis on the Simplex. Goes to show that racers are racers in every era. Beautiful!

  2. Fantastic! Thank you, Mr. Evans.
    The wheels and tires on the Packard Gray Wolf are only slightly more substantial than those on the bicycle beside it. And the Packard was a “dirt car!”
    It appears that the drilled seat on the Simplex has already broken along the lower row of holes. But, since the riding mechanic was perched high above the seat structure, I guess it didn’t much matter.

  3. A wonderful artical that made me remember my late father speaking about these race’s Dad as a young man became an auto mechanic until the geat depression ,and loved cars.His favorite being his 1922 Velie,I can after seing these old photos understand why.Thanks for the GREAT ARTICAL !!

    1. Agree, great article from Art. To Howard’s comment, I will absolutely provide testimony is the definitive source for information and images on this so, so important event to automobiling and motorsport.

  4. Art….
    In your research for Vanderbilt Cup races have you come upon a full participant list?
    As told to me by my grandfather, his father, Charles I. Hudson, raced in several Cup races. His home was in Hempstead and had been associated with the Vanderbilt family as friends.
    The story from grandfather was that his father would drive until he needed a pee stop or a beer. He would pull into their home’s driveway and tell his son, my grandfather, “…to go like hell but don’t pass anyone nor let anyone pass you.”
    I have searched some race records but haven’t had any luck with finding Charles I. Hudson’s name.
    Would appreciate anything you might have found.
    Chuck Hudson

    1. Hi Chuck:

      I have no record of Chuck Hudson as a driver in the Vanderbilt Cup Races held on Long Island from 1904-1910. He may have been a mechanician (driving mechanic).



  5. Really wonderful article supported by images, Art. One point about your closing. Tony George, while still part of the ownership family of the IndyCar series is no longer part of the management team and has little influence on day-to-day operations. That said, I do believe a revival of the Vanderbilt Cup in some form would be special. Howard Kroplick would know about the rights and the legal complications. It also requires a marketing strategy, of course, and all sanctioning bodies look for entitlement sponsorships associated with trophies/races/prizes. Again, congratulations on the great work Art.